Nature and Sociology

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Maternal Deprivation : The idea that separation from the female caregiver has profound effects is one with considerable resonance outside the conventional study of child development. Maternal Deprivation : This clip is of footage from a study on maternal deprivation that found babies suffer emotional damage when separated from their mothers. Interpret why social isolation can be problematic for a person in society and the importance of social connections. Social isolation occurs when members of a social species like humans have complete or near-complete lack of contact with society.

Biology and Sociology

Social isolation is usually imposed involuntary, not chosen. Social isolation is not the same as loneliness rooted in temporary lack of contact with other humans, nor is it the same as isolating actions that might be consciously undertaken by an individual. A related phenomenon, emotional isolation may occur when individuals are emotionally isolated, even though they may have well-functioning social networks.

Socially isolated people have no one to turn to in personal emergencies, no one to confide in during a crisis, and no one against whom to measure their own behavior against or from whom to learn etiquette or socially acceptable behavior. Social isolation can be problematic at any age, although it has different effects for different age groups that is, social isolation for children may have different effects than social isolation for adults, although both age groups may experience it.

Socially isolated individuals lack these beneficial influences, as well as lacking a social support network that can provide help and comfort in times of stress and distress.

Social relationships can also connect people with diffuse social networks that facilitate access to a wide range of resources supportive of health, such as medical referral networks, access to others dealing with similar problems, or opportunities to acquire needed resources via jobs, shopping, or financial institutions. These effects are different from receiving direct support from a friend; instead, they are based on the ties that close social ties provide to more distant connections.

Sociologists debate whether new technologies, such as the Internet and mobile phones exacerbate social isolation or could help overcome it. With the advent of online social networking communities, people have increasing options for engaging in social activities that do not require real-world physical interaction. Chat rooms, message boards, and other types of communities are now meeting social needs for those who would rather stay home alone, yet still develop communities of online friends.

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Social Isolation : Older adults are particularly susceptible to social isolation. A feral child is a human child who has lived isolated from human contact from a very young age, and has no or little experience of human care, loving or social behavior, and, crucially, of human language.

Some feral children have been confined in isolation by other people, usually their own parents. Feral children may have experienced severe child abuse or trauma before being abandoned or running away. Myths, legends, and fictional stories have depicted feral children reared by wild animals such as wolves and bears. Legendary and fictional feral children are often depicted as growing up with relatively normal human intelligence and skills and an innate sense of culture or civilization, coupled with a healthy dose of survival instincts.

Their integration into human society is also made to seem relatively easy. The implication is that because of their upbringing they represent humanity in a pure and uncorrupted state, similar to the noble savage. In reality, feral children lack the basic social skills that are normally learned in the process of enculturation. For example, they may be unable to learn to use a toilet, have trouble learning to walk upright, and display a complete lack of interest in the human activity around them.

They often seem mentally impaired and have almost insurmountable trouble learning human language. The impaired ability to learn language after having been isolated for so many years is often attributed to the existence of a critical period for language learning at an early age, and is taken as evidence in favor of the critical period hypothesis. It is theorized that if language is not developed, at least to a degree, during this critical period, a child can never reach his or her full language potential.

The fact that feral children lack these abilities pinpoints the role of socialization in human development.

Chapter 1. An Introduction to Sociology

Tragically, feral children are not just fictional. Several cases have been discovered in which caretakers brutally isolated their children and in doing so prevented normal development. Doctors and therapists diagnosed Danielle with environmental autism, yet she was still adopted by Bernie and Diane Lierow. Danielle could not speak or respond to others nor eat solid food. Today, Danielle lives in Tennessee with her parents and has made remarkable progress.

Account Options

She communicates through the PECS system and loves to swim and ride horses. Peter Pan : Peter Pan is an example of a fictional feral child. Institutionalized children may develop institutional syndrome, which refers to deficits or disabilities in social and life skills. Discuss both the processes of institutionalization and deinstitutionalization, as they relate to issues juveniles may have. In clinical and abnormal psychology, institutional syndrome refers to deficits or disabilities in social and life skills, which develop after a person has spent a long period living in mental hospitals, prisons, or other remote institutions.

It has also been argued that institutionalized individuals become psychologically more prone to mental health problems. However, there are a number of institutions specializing only in the treatment of juveniles, particularly when dealing with drug abuse, self-harm, eating disorders, anxiety, depression or other mental illness. Psychiatric Wards : Many state hospitals have mental health branches, such as the Northern Michigan Asylum. Deinstitutionalization is the process of replacing long-stay psychiatric hospitals with less isolated community mental health service for those diagnosed with a mental disorder or developmental disability.

Deinstitutionalization can have multiple definitions; the first focuses on reducing the population size of mental institutions. This can be accomplished by releasing individuals from institutions, shortening the length of stays, and reducing both admissions and readmission. Skip to main content. Search for:. Learning Objectives Describe the three goals of socialization and why each is important. Key Takeaways Key Points Socialization prepares people to participate in a social group by teaching them its norms and expectations. Socialization has three primary goals: teaching impulse control and developing a conscience, preparing people to perform certain social roles, and cultivating shared sources of meaning and value.

Socialization is culturally specific, but this does not mean certain cultures are better or worse than others. Jeffrey J.

1.1. What Is Sociology?

Nature vs. Learning Objectives Discuss both sides of the nature versus nurture debate, understanding the implications of each. Key Takeaways Key Points Nature refers to innate qualities like human nature or genetics. Nurture refers to care given to children by parents or, more broadly, to environmental influences such as media and marketing. The nature versus nurture debate raises philosophical questions about determinism and free will. Key Terms nurture : The environmental influences that contribute to the development of an individual; see also nature. What something will tend by its own constitution, to be or do.

Distinct from what might be expected or intended. Sociobiology Sociobiology examines and explains social behavior based on biological evolution. Learning Objectives Discuss the concept of sociobiology in relation to natural selection and Charles Darwin, as well as genetics and instinctive behaviors.

The Role of Socialization

Key Takeaways Key Points Sociobiologists believe that human behavior, like nonhuman animal behavior, can be partly explained as the outcome of natural selection. Sociobiologists are interested in instinctive, or intuitive behavior, and in explaining the similarities, rather than the differences, between cultures. Deprivation and Development Social deprivation, or prevention from culturally normal interaction with society, affects mental health and impairs child development.

Learning Objectives Explain why social deprivation is problematic for a person especially children and the issues it can lead to. Key Takeaways Key Points As they develop, humans go through several critical periods, or windows of time during which they need to experience particular environmental stimuli in order to develop properly. Attachment theory argues that infants must develop stable, on-going relationships with at least one adult caregiver in order to form a basis for successful development.

The term maternal deprivation is a catch phrase summarizing the early work of psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby on the effects of separating infants and young children from their mother. Key Terms feral children : A feral child is a human child who has lived isolated from human contact from a very young age, and has no experience of human care, loving or social behavior, and, crucially, of human language.

Attachment Theory : Attachment theory describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans. Its most important tenet is that an infant needs to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for social and emotional development to occur normally. Social deprivation : In instances of social deprivation, particularly for children, social experiences tend to be less varied and development may be delayed or hindered.

Learning Objectives Interpret why social isolation can be problematic for a person in society and the importance of social connections. Key Takeaways Key Points True social isolation is not the same as loneliness. Emotional isolation is a term used to describe a state of isolation where the individual is emotionally isolated, but may have a well functioning social network.

Introduction to Sociological Research

Social networks promote good health by providing direct support, encouraging healthy behaviors, and linking people with diffuse social networks that facilitate access to a wide range of resources supportive of health. In the above letter it is suggested, obviously in criticism of the last-mentioned contention of mine, that I have neglected to discuss the applicability of natural selection to the study of human culture.

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Sociology: Nature of Sociology

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