Human Settlements. An Annotated Bibliography

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Kouchoukos, Nicholas, and Wilkinson, Tony. Stone, Elizabeth C. This piece reinforces the importance of survey and landscape archaeology in understanding human settlement patterns. This passage has given me an overview of what landscape archaeology not only means for researchers, but what it could mean for individuals in general.

Furthermore, I understand that in the absence of survey data, anthropologists are less likely to discover the underlying properties of what influences general processes of urban growth and decay. Morozova, Galina S. Geoarchaeology 20 4 This paper describes the process of Tigris-Euphrates avulsion activity in forming avulsion belts, and its impact in relation to settlement patterns. The author relates avulsion as a process in which a major river diverts from an existing channel to a lower elevation on a floodplain into a new channel belt.

In regards to ancient southern Mesopotamia from BP, it is widely accepted that settlement patterns are directly linked to waterway course abandonment patterns resulting from avulsion activity of Tigris-Euphrates rivers. In other words, human populations were distributed in accordance with the Tigris-Euphrates avulsion styles, channel formation processes and sedimentation patterns.

Furthermore, the author concludes that settlement distribution weighed heavily upon avulsion styles and frequency, channel patterns, and rates of abandonment of multichannel networks; and in turn, these processes directly affect the growth or decline of urban and rural settlements in southern Mesopotamia. This paper has enhanced my understanding of avulsion processes in general, as well as the effects of progradation and aggradation on Mesopotamian landscapes. Having this information, has provided me insight into how Tigris-Euphrates rivers continuously move the landscape, thus having control over where human populations were able to thrive.

Additionally, I have gained increased awareness of how human intervention not only affects the outcome of landscape transformation, but ultimately controls when, where, and how populations are distributed within the landscape. Past and Present 1 Wilkinson, Tony J. Journal of Archaeological Research 8 3 This paper is a communication on the importance of archaeological survey in understanding settlement patterns in ancient Mesopotamia.

The author focuses on how archaeological survey has contributed to the knowledge of how patterns of settlement, population density, and land use, have changed over time. Additionally, this paper expresses how urbanization processes, settlement dispersal, and qualitative shifts in settlements and populations reflect changes which occurred politically, socioeconomically, and environmentally.

He further concludes there has been a considerable amount of fluctuating of settlement patterns which probably began with the Late Chalcolithic period; and that these fluxes were due in part to the transitioning back and forth between pastoral-nomadism and sedentary based communities. Additionally, I have a better understanding of the importance of survey data toward understanding when and where populations grew, declined, or dispersed.

This in turn helps to improve the knowledge of settlement patterns in ancient Mesopotamia. Avila, J. Type: Technical Report Summary: A demonstration of how consideration of accessibility during the design phase enables more responsive, flexible, versatile outcomes that work better across all devices and situations. Rego, N.

Section I. General and Theoretical Materials on Culture in Mental Health

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Epub Human Settlements An Annotated Bibliography

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Selected Bibliography

Disability Inclusion Overview. The World Bank Examines how the end of apartheid caused many people to move into informal settlements and how urban planners will have to deal with the massive influx of people that have settled in a non-structured way.

Morkel, and S. This article directly addresses the issue of roads in informal settlements by analyzing the existing road structure in the informal settlements of Cape Town and Johannesburg, South Africa. Additionally, the article provides possibilities for creating better roads that are still suitable to the setup of informal settlements. A case study of Kosova where a conflict caused thousands of people to move into informal settlements, and then later planners had to go and try to restructure the area in a productive, and regularized way.

September 06, Article covers problems in redevelopment, tensions between the people and the government, and the importance of spatial planning. Environment and Urbanization Sage , 18 2 , This article focuses on the informal settlement of Orangi in Karachi, Pakistan. The Orangi Pilot Project-Research and Training Institute and their efforts to map the under-documented infrastructure of Orangi, as well as general efforts to improve sanitation and housing, help illustrate the importance of mapping in urban projects and the integral part that mapping and infrastructure play in the development of informal settlements.

A case study that talks about political and social issues with redevelopment in South Africa, namely the Fish River area.

Tries to point out issues so that a solution promoting economic growth and sustainability can be found. Flood Risk in Unplanned Settlements in Lusaka. Environment and Urbanization Sage , 19 2 , This article explores one of the prominent dangers that informal settlements face-mother nature.

By highlighting the potential disaster by flood that the informal settlements in Lusaka face, it helps emphasize the important role that solid infrastructure can play in a community, as well as the massive loss of life and sanitation fiascos that can occur in these settlements where finding a place to live trumps a safe and effective community layout.

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It discusses the importance of spatial planning in South Africa in the post-apartheid era and offers a case study of the Maputo Development Corridor. Environment and Urbanization, 18 2 , The author describes how an Eco-Village needs a balance of growth, sustainability and equity in order to succeed. The plan was focused around children, which is similar to the proposition for Monwabisi Park. Also, the author explained how the community reduced the need for external services.

Environment and Urbanization Sage , 18 1 , It stresses that although improved infrastructure and economic growth are essential to progress, it is sincerely in the best interest of those involved to keep in mind ecological issues such as resource dependence and how it should effect further planning. Public Works Management Policy, 4 , — This article identifies a connection between economic and transportation infrastructure development.

It implies that places of economic growth or success are generally in areas accessible by better quality roads. This leads to the conclusion that quality transportation infrastructure roads, sidewalks, etc. Cape Town, South Africa Print. This source directly identifies issues with the spatial layout of Monwabisi Park. The authors include why spatial redevelopment is vital to the sustainability of this community and they propose some options to be used in the future. They also include the reasons behind the inefficient layout of the park. Article discusses how the loose and chaotic framework of informal settlements pose a challenge to sustainable design, and offers solutions to create an eco-friendly model through case studies.

Community Mapping: A tool for community organising This journal explains the use of community mapping as a participatory development tool. It includes the issues within community mapping and an approach used to improve social change. Since we will be collaborating greatly with the Shaster Foundation and working with what they have already accomplished, this website is very helpful.

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It includes their past efforts in Monwabisi Park, specifically the Indlovu Center, and their future efforts as well. It also includes important contacts and sets goals that can be helpful for projects concerning mapping and planning. Newham, and C. This paper summarizes well-developed and poorly developed road designs.

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It demonstrates the procedure for researching and developing models specializing in roads. It also includes how to design a road with long term durability.